REB INAMA ZAGUYE Z’UBUREZI ZIGAMIJE GUTEZA IMBERE IREME RY’UBUREZI ZIRAKOMEJE MU TURERE TWOSE.

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MINEDUC: IMISHAHARA Y'ABAYOBOZI B'AMASHURI (UBURYO BURAMBUYE)

INAMA ZAGUYE Z’UBUREZI ZIGAMIJE GUTEZA IMBERE IREME RY’UBUREZI ZIRAKOMEJE MU TURERE TWOSE

Guhera tariki ya 22 Werurwe 2022 kuzageza tariki 29 Werurwe 2022, Minisiteri y’Uburezi ifatanyije n’Ibigo biyishamikiyeho yateguye ubukangurambaga ku ireme ry’uburezi. Ubu bukangurambaga byatangiye ku itariki twavuze haruguru bwitabiriwe n’abayobozi batandukanye guhera kuri ba Minisitiri kugeza ku bayobozi bo mu bigo byishamikiye kuri MINEDUC, aho bagiye ndetse bakomeje kujya mu Turere dutandukanye.

Aba bayobozi bari gusura  amashuri atandukanye mu Turere yaba amashuri y’ubumenyi rusange ndetse n’ay’ubumenyingiro n’imyuga. Aba bayobozi basura amashuri bashaka kureba uko ibigo biyobowe ndetse n’ibindi bibazo byose byaba biri mu mashuri kugira ngo bishakirwe umuti unoze; muri uko gusura ibigo, abayobozi baboneraho umwanya wo kujya inama y’icyakorwa kugira ngo uburezi bwifuzwa bugerweho. Nyuma yo gusura amashuri, aba bayobozi kandi bagira umwanya uhagije wo kugirana ibiganiro n’inama yaguye y’uburezi mu Turere.

Muri iyo nama, abayobozi b’ibigo by’amashuri, abahagarariye amadini n’amatorero, ba nyir’ibigo, Umugenzuzi w’uburezi mu Karere , abashinzwe uburezi ku Mirenge, abashinzwe uburezi mu Karere, ndese n’ubuyobozi bwite bw’Akarere bitababira iyo nama rusange. Aba bose baba baganira ku burezi ndetse bashakira hamwe umuti ibibazo byaba bigaragara ndetse bishimira ibimaze kugerwaho.

Muri ibyo biganiro, Minisiteri y’Uburezi yateguye ubutumwa butangwa n’intumwa zayo ndetse abagize inama rusange nabo bakagaragaza ibitekerezo byabo by’icyatuma ireme ry’uburezi ryifuzwa rigerwaho.

Reka tubagezeho  zimwe mu ngingo zigize ubutumwa butangwa muri izo nama zaguye z’uburezi mu Turere.

  1. Kugabanya umubare w’abana bata ishuri

Guta ishuri mu byiciro byose by’amashuri ni ikibazo gihangayikishije igihugu. Imibare y’agateganyo ya 2020/2021 igaragaza ko abana bata ishuri yiyongereye ku kigereranyo  cya 9.5% ivuye kuri 7.8% mu mwaka wa 2018/2019 mu mashuri abanza. Naho mu mashuri yisumbuye, abanyeshuri bata ishuri bageze ku kigereranyo cya 11% bavuye kuri 9.1%.  Mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’amashuri yisumbuye, imibare yavuye kuri 5.1% igera kuri 7.8%.

Hashyizweho ingamba zitandukanye zirimo:

  • Kubaka ibyumba by’amashuri kugira ngo hagabanywe ubucukike n’ingendo ndende;
  • Gahunda yo kugaburira abana ku ishuri;
  • Kongera umubare w’abarimu, ibikoresho n’ibindi.

Umuyobozi/umwarimu akwiye gukurikirana umwana umunsi ku wundi cyane cyane abakunda gusiba. Ibi bizatuma abayobozi bakumira hakiri kare impamvu izo ari zose zatuma umunyeshuri runaka ata ishuri bityo akomeze amahirwe ye yo gukomeza ishuri akazigirira akamaro ndetse n’igihugu.

2. Ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gahunda yo kugaburira abana ku ishuri

Gahunda yo kugaburira abana ku ishuri yashyizweho na Leta kubera akamaro ifitiye abana harimo:

  • Kudasonza bari ku ishuri bityo bigatuma biga neza, bagakurikira, ntibarangare cyangwa ngo bacike intege.
  • Iyi gahunda igamije no kubaka ubusabane mu bana.
  • kurandura ibibazo by’imirire mibi.

Ubu amashuri yemerewe kugurira ibiryo hafi yayo , abana bakarya indyo nziza yuzuye, kandi igizwe n’ibiribwa biboneka mu gace ishuri riherereyemo.

Kugeza ubu:

  • Gahunda yo kugaburira abanyeshuri ihera mu mashuri y’incuke ikageza mu mashuri yisumbuye;
  • Imibare igaragaza ko abanyeshuri bagera kuri 75% aribo barya ku ishuri.
  • Leta itanga amafaranga 56 kuri buri mwana ku munsi (40%). Andi ateganyijwe gutangwa n’ababyeyi. Leta iri kwiga ku buryo yakongera uruhare rwayo.

Kugira ngo iyi gahunda igere kuri bose, Leta y’u Rwanda yubatse ibikoni, ikora za movelo, itanga amabwiriza arambuye y’uburyo iyi gahunda ishyirwa mu bikorwa, ikomeza gutanga umusanzu wunganira ababyeyi, ishyiraho komite zizajya zibikurikirana n’ibindi.

Uruhare rw’ababyeyi n’ingirakamaro cyane kugira ngo iyi gahunda igende neza. Abayobozi b’amashuri bakwiye gushyiraho uburyo bwo kugera ku babyeyi kugira ngo babafashe kuzuza inshingano zabo zo gushakira abana ibikoresho bikenerwa ku ishuri, ko batanga n’umusanzu wabo muri gahunda yo kugaburira abanyeshuri ku ishuri nkuko biteganywa na komite zishinzwe iyi gahunda ku rwego rw’ishuri.

Turasaba n’ibigo by’amashuri by’umwihariko gukoresha komite zishinzwe iyi gahunda, aho zitarashyirwaho zigashyirwaho kugira ngo zunganirwe n’izo ku Mirenge n’Uturere.

3. Gukoresha SDMS neza mu mashuri

SDMS yashyizweho kugira ngo ikusanye amakuru ajyanye n’uburezi, gucunga neza imari y’ishuri n’ibaruramari, no guhanahana amakuru kuva ku ishuri, umurenge, uturere n’igihugu.

Nubwo inyungu nziza zavuzwe haruguru, Minisiteri y’ Uburezi ntibasha kubona amakuru yukuri kandi yuzuye ku banyeshuri, abakozi, ibikorwa remezo by’ishuri na gahunda zo mu mashuri.

Zimwe mu mbogamizi zingenzi zigomba gukemurwa ni izi zikurikira:

  • Ubumenyi kuri SDMS bw’ abayobozi b’amashuri:
    • Hakorwa amahugurwa ahoraho atangwa na MINEDUC ku bufatanye n’Uturere.
    • Kohereza mu Uturere abimenyereza umwuga baturutse muri MINEDUC, bazafasha amashuri kw’injiza amakuru muri SDMS kandi baha amahugurwa abayobozi b’amashuri.
  • Kutumva uburemere bwo gutanga amakuru nyayo muri SDMS. Ntabwo bihagije kwinjiza amakuru muri SDMS, ariko ayo makuru agomba kugenzurwa mubyiciro bitandukanye (Umurenge, Akarere, Urwego rwigihugu) kugirango harebwe niba ari ntamakemwa (ingero: imyaka yabanyeshuri, gushyira abanyeshuri mumashuri/classrooms bigiramo, kwandika abarimu n’amasomo bigisha no mumashuri bigishirizamo… n’ibindi.)
  • 4. Gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu myigishirize n’imyigire

Gushimangira ikoreshwa rya ICT mu kwigisha no gukoresha ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga biboneka ku ishuri:

    • One laptop per child (Mudasobwa imwe kuri buri munyeshuri mu mashuri abanza). Abana bagomba gukoresha mudasobwa mu masaha yagenwe.
    • “Smart Classrooms” na “Computer Labs”: Ibi byumba bigomba gukoreshwa mu masomo yose, atari mu gihe cy’amasomo ya ICT.
    • E-Learning platforms: zigomba gukoreshwa n’abarimu n’abanyeshuri kugira ngo bagere ku masomo n’ibitabo.

5. Imikorere n’imikoranire hagati y’uturere n’abagenzuzi b’uburezi bo ku rwego rw’igihugu

Kuba umugenzuzi w’Uburezi ku rwego rw’Igihugu akorera mu karere bifasha:

  • Gukorana bya hafi n’inzego z’Uburezi ku rwego rw’Akarere ,Umurenge n’Ishuri  mu gukurikirana ubuzima bwa buri munsi bw’amashuri n’abanyeshuri hagamijwe kuzamura imyigire n’Imyigishirize;
  • Kwegeranya no kwihutisha amakuru ava ku rwego rw’ishuri, Umurenge,Akarere no ku rwego rw’Igihugu  hagamijwe kuzamura Ireme ry’Uburezi;
  • Gukemura ibibazo ku rwego rw’ishuri no gukora ubuvugizi ku nzego bireba zose
  • Kurebera  hamwe ibibazo byagaragajwe n’Ubugenzuzi  butandukanye mu nama  z’Uburezi ku rwego rw’Akarere no kubifatira imyanzuro.

Ihererekanyamakuru y’ibyavuye mu bugenzuzi butandukanye hitabwa kuri ibi bikurikira:

  • Igenamigambi ry’Ibikorwa by’Ubugenzuzi ritegurwa na NESA hitawe ku bikorwa by’Ubugenzuzi bw’Ákarere;
  • Gahunda y’Ibikorwa by’Ubugenzuzi bitegurwa na NESA hashingiwe ku Igenamigambi ryateguwe;
  • Gahunda z’Ibikorwa by’Ubugenzuzi zitateganijwe byashyikirijwe urwego rw’Igihugu (special cases) zizajya bitegurwa na NESA;
  • Raporo zavuye mu bugenzuzi zizajya zishyikirizwa NESA hamenyeshwe Akarere umugenzuzi akoreramo;
  • Raporo z’Abagenzuzi zahurijwe ku rwego rw’Igihugu zizajya zishyikirizwa Uturere.

6. Umwalimu SACCO

Kuva U.SACCO yatangira muri 2006, ubu tugeze ku banyamuryango 115, 000, babonera serivisi mu mashami 30 (ishami 1 muri buri karere), no mu Mirenge SACCO 336 dufitanye amasezerano y’imikoranire mu gihugu hose.

Abemerewe kuba abanyamuryango  b’Umwalimu SACCO ni abarimu bose mu gihugu mu mashuri ya Leta n’ ayigenga, kaminuza zose zaba iz’igenga n’iza Leta ndetse n’ibigo byose bishamikiye ku burezi n’abakozi babyo.

Serivisi z’umwalimu SACCO:

  • Serivisi z’inguzanyo zigera ku bwoko 12
  • Serivisi zo kwizigama zigera ku bwoko 5
  • Serivisi z’ikoranabuhanga: Mobile Banking & Mobile App, Urubuto E- Payment
  • Dusigaye dutanga inguzanyo igera kuri miliyoni 100 Frw, inyunga iri hagati ya 11% – 14% ku gihe gishobora kuva ku kwezi kumwe kugera ku myaka 12.
  • Kongerera ubushobozi abanyamuryango ku birebana no gucunga neza imishinga ibabyarira inyungu, binyuze mu mahugurwa, kandi birakomeza.

Ubufatanye twifuza ni:

  • Gukomeza gushishikariza abarezi kugana U.SACCO kuko ari bo yashyiriweho.
  • Gushishikariza ibigo by’amashuri gufungura konti mu Mwalimu SACCO no kunyuza amafaranga y’ishuri mu Umwalimu SACCO bifashishije “Urubuto System”.
  • Gushishikariza ibigo byigenga na Kaminuza gufunguza konti, kwizigama no gufata inguzanyo mu Mwalimu SACCO.
  • Gushishikariza no korohereza abarimu bo mu bigo byigenga kugira konti mu Umwalimu SACCO, bakabaha contract y’igihe kirekire cyangwa amabaruwa abaha akazi ku gihe.
  • Gushishikariza abarimu badafite amashanyarazi kugana U.SACCO ukabaha inguzanyo zo kugura ibikoresho by’ amashanyarazi y’Umurasire w’Izuba, bityo bakabasha gucana mu ngo zabo, bikabafasha gutegura amasomo neza.
  • Kudufasha kumenya abarimu bava mu kazi no kuduha amakuru y’aho baherereye igihe bishoboka, kugira ngo bidufashe kwishyuza inguzanyo abo barimu baba bafite.
  • Gushishikariza abarezi gufata inguzanyo ya mudasobwa zibafasha mu gutegura amasomo.
  • Gusaba ko Capitation grant & School Feeding Grant zose zanyuzwa kuri konti z’ibigo zo mu Umwalimu SACCO.
  • 7. Imiyoborere y’ibigo by’amashuri

Imwe mu ngamba z’ibanze Minisiteri y’uburezi yashyize imbere ni ukugira abayobozi bashoboye muri buri kigo k’ishuri cyo mu Rwanda. Kugira abayobozi babishoboye ku rwego rwa buri shuri ni ingenzi kuko umuyobozi ubishoboye atuma uburezi bugira ireme, ishuri rikabarwa mu y’ingenzi kandi abanyeshuri bagatsinda neza. Abayobozi babishoboye ni ngombwa kuko by’umwihariko bazamura amashuri yokamwe no gutsindwa kw’abanyeshuri. Urufunguzo rwo kwesa umuhigo wo kugira abarimu babishoboye no gutsinda kw’abanyeshuri bose bigomba kuva mu kugira abayobozi babishoboye kuri buri shuri.

Ni muri urwo rwego hashyizweho ibipimo ngenderwaho by’imiyoborere y’amashuri mu Rwanda. Ibyo bipimo bisobanura:

  • Inshingano zabo, imirimo bashinzwe n’ubushobozi busabwa kugira ngo bagere ku byo ikigo kiyemeje.
  • Akazi k’ibanze k’abayobozi b’ibigo by’amashuri;
  • Uruhare ku mu myigire ishyira imbere imitsindire y’abanyeshuri ndetse n’akazi kagomba gukorwa kugira ngo buri munyeshuri mu ishuri ashobore gutsinda.
  • Ubunyamwuga bishingiye ku kumenya gusobanurira abarezi inshingano z’ibanze basabwa kurangiza.

Ibyo bipimo ni ibi bikurikira:

  • Gushyiraho ikerekezo cy’ishuri
  • Kuyobora imyigire
  • Kuyobora imyigishirize
  • Gucunga ikigo cy’ishuri mu buryo bunoze
  • Gukorana n’ababyeyi n’umuryango mugari ikigo k’ishuri giherereyemo
  • 8. Ubukangurambaga kuri TVET

Impamvu ari ngombwa ko dushishikariza abanyeshuri kwiga tekiniki, imyuga n’ubumenyingiro

1. Bifasha kugira ubushobozi n’ubumenyi byo:

(i) guhangana ku isoko ry’umurimo yaba imbere mu gihugu cyangwa hanze yacyo,

(ii) kwihangira imirimo,

(iii) gushinga inganda nto n’iziciriritse,

(iv) kugira uruhare mu kubaka ibikorwaremezo by’igihugu nk’imihanda n’amazu hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga,

(v) kuzamura umusaruro w’ibikorerwa mu Rwanda (Made in Rwanda) binyuze mu gushinga inganda ndetse n’ibindi bikorwa by’ubucuruzi.

2. Impinduramatwara y’inganda ya kane (4th industrial revolution) irerekana ko amahirwe menshi y’umurimo ari mu kwiga tekiniki, imyuga n’ubumenyingiro.

3. Ihuriro ry’ubukungu ku isi (World Economic Forum) riteganya ko 42% by’ubumenyi bukenewe mu gukora akazi buzaba bushingiye kuri TVET. Ubwo bumenyi bukubiyemo (Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Self-driving vehicles, big data management, etc)

9. Amasuzuma mu mashuri

Amasuzuma ari mu byiciro bitandukanye nk’uko biteganywa n’integanyanyigisho ishingiye k’ubushobozi (Competence based Curriculum) ndetse n’amabwiriza agenga amasuzu mu mashuri.

Umunyeshuri agomba guhabwa amasuzuma kugirango harebwe niba intego y’isomo yagezweho kandi ubuyobozi bw’ishuri bugombo gukurikirana ko ayo masuzuma yatanzwe uko biteganywa kandi ibyavuyemo bigakorerwa isesengura kugirango bifashe Umwarimu n’ubuyobozi mu gufasha ingamba ziganisha ku myigire n’imyigishirize,

Ibyiciro by’amasuzu mu mashuri

  • Isuzuma ritangwa mu gihe cy‘isomo (Daily Class formative Assessment)

Umwarimu agambo gutanga isuzuma muri buri somo kugirango arebe niba intego y’isomo yagezweho kandi agakora asesengura ry’imbitse kugira ngo afate ingamba zizamura ubushobozi bwa buri munyeshuri.

  • Isuzuma ritangwa nyuma ya buri mutwe w’inyigisho (End unit Assessment)

Iri suzuma ritegurwa kandi rigatangwa nyuma yaburi mutwe w’inyigisho rigamije kureba niba umunyeshuri afite ubushobozi bigendeye ku nteganyanyigisho. Umwarimu agomba gutegura isuzuma risoza buri mutwe w’inyigisho kandi agomba kwandika ibyavuye mu isuzuma, agakora isesengura rimufasha gufata ingamba zo kuzamura buri munyeshuri.

  • Isuzuma risoza igihembwe cya mbere (End of term One Comprehensive Assessment)

Iri suzuma ritegurwa kandi rigatangwa ku rwego rw’ishuri. Ubuyobozi bw’ishuri bugomba gutegura iri suzuma bugendeye kubitenganywijwe kwigishwa mu gihembwe cya mbere, hakagenzurwa ireme ry’ikizamini cyateguwe.

  • Isuzuma risoza igihembwe cya Kabiri (End of term Two Comprehensive assessment)

Iri suzuma ritegurwa kandi rigashyirwa mu bikorwa ku rwego  rw’Akarere. Akarere kifashisha itsinda ry abarimu batoranijwe mu Karere.

  • Isuzuma risoma umwaka

Ni isuzuma ritegurwa n’urwego rw‘igihugu rufite mu nshingano ibizamini rigashyirwa mu bikorwa kubufatanye n’Akarere.

Aya masuzuma yose agamije gusuzuma ubushobozi bw’umunyeshuri mu myigire ye (Assessment of Learning). Niyo mpamvu ibivuye muri aya masuzuma bigomba gukorerwa ubusesenguzi bwimbitse mu rwego rwo gufata ingamba zihamye zo kuzamura imyigire m’imyigishirize kuva kuri mwarimu kugeza ku rwego rw’igihugu.

  • 10. Imyigishirize n’imyigire mu mashuri

Zimwe mu ngamba zigamije kuzamura imyigire n’imyigishirize:

  • kongerera abarimu ubushobozi n’ubumenyi butandukanye,
  • gushyira imbaraga mu masomo ajyanye n’imibare n’ubumenyi (STEM),
  • kongera imbaraga mu ikoreshwa ry’ikoranabuhanga mu myigire n’imyigishirize

Kugira ngo izi ngamba zishyirwe mu bikorwa,

  • himakazwa integanyanyigisho ishingiye ku bushobozi mu mashuri y’incuke, abanza, ay’isumbuye n’aya tekinike, imyuga n’ubumenyingiro.
  • Hatangwa imfashanyigisho zirimo ibitabo, ibikoresho bya laboratwari, mudasobwa n’ibindi bikoresho bitandukanye bifasha umwarimu n’ umunyeshuri.
  • Hatangwa gahunda zitadukanye z’amahugurwa agamije kongerera ubushobozi abarimu.

Nubwo Leta ishyiraho gahunda zitadukanye, ntabwo twagera ku ntego twihaye umwarimu atagize uruhare rugaragara mu kunoza imyigishirize n’imyigire mu mashuri. Ibi birasaba ko umwarimu aba afite ubushobozi bukirikira:

  1. Gutegura isomo neza kandi ku gihe
  2. Kumenya gukoresha neza imfashanyigisho
  3. Kumenya abanyeshuri yigisha, gukurikirana ubwitabire bwabo, imitsindire, n’ibindi
  4. Kwitabira amahugurwa amwongerera ubushobozi
  5. kwita ku ndangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco nyarwanda

11. Gushaka no gushyira mu myanya abarimu ku rwego rw’igihugu

Ikerekezo cya Minisiteri uburezi mu bijyanye n’ imicungire y’abarimu ni ukugira umwarimu ufite ubumenyi n’ubushobozi. Iki kerekezo gitanga umurongo mu gusubiza ikibazo k’ibura ry’abarimu babifitiye ubumenyi n’ubushobozi kandi bafite umurava n’ubushake bwo kuguma muri mwuga w’uburezi.  N’ubwo Leta yashyizemo imbaraga nyinshi muri gahunda z’uburezi, umwuga w’uburezi uhura n’imbogamizi nyinshi zisaba gufatirwa ingamba n’ibyemezo mu kubikemura. Kimwe mu bibazo by’ingutu mu micungire y’abarimu n’ugushaka no gushyira mu myanya abarimu. Bitewe n’ibyumba byinshi by’amashuri bigera kuri 22,505 byubatswe mu mwaka umwe hatekerejwe no gushaka abarimu benshi mu gihe gito bagomba kubyigishirizamo.

Gushaka no gushyira mu myanya abarimu byari bisanzwe bikorwa ku rwego rw’ Akarere  ugasanga bigoranye kubona abakandida bahagije mu masomo amwe n’amwe nk’ay’ Ubugenge, ikoranabuhanga, Imibare, Ubutabire, ndetse n’indimi (Icyongereza, Igifaransa, n’ Ikinyarwanda).

Ikindi kibazo cyagaragaraga ku rwego rw’Akarere, ni ukubona umubare uhagije w’abarimu kubera ko nta bushobozi Akarere kamwe kabaga gafite bwo kujya gushaka abakandida batsinze mu kandi karere. Bityo bagashyira mu myanya gusa abarimu bakoreye ibizami mu karere kabo.

Nyuma yo kubona izo mbogamizi zose, Minisiteri y’Uburezi ibinyujije mu bigo byayo yashyizeho uburyo bwo gushaka no gushyira mu myanya abarimu n’abayobozi b’amashuri hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga mu rwego rwo gukorera mu mucyo no kwirinda amakosa yabonekaga mu gukosora impapuro z’ibizami by’abakandida. Ubu buryo butegurirwa ku rwego rw’Igihugu ku bufatanye n’Uturere.

Kuva mu Ugushyingo 2020 kugeza Werurwe 2022, mu barimu n’abayobozi b’amashuri y’incuke, abanza n’ayisumbuye bagera ku bihumbi mirongo ine (40,000) bamaze guhabwa akazi, abarenga ibihumbi cumi na kimwe (11,000) bakoze ibizami ndetse bashyirwa mu myanya hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga (e-recruitment system).

Ubu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga bwagaragaje cyane gukorera mu mucyo ndetse bwishimirwa n’abakandida kuko bahita babona amanota yabo bakirangiza ikizami bityo abatsinze bagategereza guhabwa akazi usibye abayobozi b’ibigo by’amashuri bagomba gukora ikindi kizami mu buryo bw’ikiganiro (Oral Interview).

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